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THE FONTANA/NORTON HISTORY OF THE HUMAN SCIENCES

The full text of this large-scale history, of unrivaled breadth, is now freely available on line.
First published in 1997, I have now corrected errors, rewritten poorly expressed passages and improved the style. But there are no changes of substance and I have not attempted to take account of all the work published since the book first appeared.
The on-line version does not include the earlier extensive bibliography.
Each chapter is in a separate file, but pages are numbered continuously.

Readers who want a more focused history of psychology, which is fully up-to-date, should go to my book, Between Mind and Nature: A History of Psychology (London: Reaktion Books, 2013; distributed in the U.S. by the University of Chicago Press).

 

 Contents

THE FONTANA/NORTON HISTORY OF THE HUMAN SCIENCES

 

Chapter 1          The History of the Human Sciences

            1          Introduction

            9          Ambivalence and diversity in the human sciences

            26        Writing history

            36        References to quotations in chapter 1

 

Chapter 2          The dignity of man

            39        Ancient and modern learning: the Renaissance

            47        On the soul

            53        The eye

            57        The spirits and humours

            63        Woman

            68        Moral philosophy

            76        Rhetoric

            81        History

            85        References to quotations in chapter 2              

 

Chapter 3          The Province of Natural Law

            88        Law and jurisprudence

            95        In search of moral authority: Hugo Grotius

            100      The world's peoples

            107      Thomas Hobbes and natural philosophy

            119      Samuel Pufendorf on natural law

            125      References to quotations in chapter 3

 

Chapter 4          Body and Soul

            128      Theology, pneumatology, medicine

            137      Cartesian dualism

            146      Les passions de l'âme

            154      Self-reflection and the self

            165      References to quotations in chapter 4

                       

Chapter 5          John Locke and the Natural History of the Soul

            167      An Essay Concerning Humane Understanding

            176      Conduct, education and politics

            184      Self-identity and language

            191      A New Theory of Vision

            196      References to quotations in chapter 5

 

Chapter 6          The Principles of Rational Science

            199      Reason and the road to knowledge

            206      Deductive knowledge: Benedict Spinoza and G. W. Leibniz

            217      The German Enlightenment

            232      References to quotations in chapter 6

 

 Chapter 7          Human Nature: Natural and Moral Philosophy

            234      Human nature and physical nature

            243      L'homme machine

            247      Feeling and sex

            253      The French analysis of sensation

            263      Moral philosophy and 'the science of man'

            273      The association of ideas

            282      References to quotations in chapter 7

 

Chapter 8          Human Variety and Sociability

            287      The state of nature

            295      Orangs and others

            303      Jean-Jacques Rousseau: savage and civilised society

            311      Social sentiment

            317      De l'esprit des lois

            322      The history of civilisation

            330      References to quotations in chapter 8

 

Chapter 9          Political Economy

            334      'Economy' in the seventeenth century

            341      Political arithmetic

            349      The Wealth of Nations

            361      The principle of utility

            374      References to quotations in chapter 9

 

Chapter 10        Culture of the Spirit

            376      La scienza nuova: Giambattista Vico

            387      Philosophy and history

            397      Conscious spirit

            408      Imagination and will: Samuel Taylor Coleridge and Maine de Biran

            415      References to quotations in chapter 10

 

Chapter 11        Academic Disciplines and Public Values

            418      The university and the public

            426      Philology and critical scholarship

            438      Prehistory

            444      Human differences and race

            462      Physiology and mental science

            478      References to quotations in chapter 11

                       

Chapter 12        The Science of Society

            483      Reaction to 1789

            489      Auguste Comte and positive sociology

            498      The young Karl Marx

            509      Scientific socialism

            520      References to quotations in chapter 12

 

 Chapter 13        Human Evolution

            523      Man's Place in Nature

            531      Evolution and Herbert Spencer

            540      The Descent of Man

            551      Social evolutionism

            557      Functional explanation

            567      References to quotations in chapter 13

 

Chapter 14        The Academic Disciplines of Psychology

            571      Diverse origins

            580      Wilhelm Wundt and experimental psychology

            589      Psychology in Germany

            600      Psychology in the United States

            610      References to quotations in chapter 14

 

Chapter  15        The Academic Disciplines of Sociology

            612      Social thought and social change

            630      Emile Durkheim and the French Third Republic

            640      Max Weber and Wilhelmine Germany

            653      Sociology in the United States

            661      References to quotations in chapter 15

 

Chapter 16        Psychological Society

            665      Psychology in the twentieth century

            672      Individual differences and statistical analysis

            682      Education and mental tests

            694      Personality

            702      Occupational psychology

            714      Vienna, the interwar years and the psychology of the child

            725      Nature and nurture

            736      References to quotations in chapter 16

 

Chapter 17        Natural Science and Objectivity

            739      The status of psychology as a natural science

            748      I. P. Pavlov and 'higher nervous activity'

            755      Behaviourism: John B. Watson

            765      Scientific method and neobehaviourism

            781      Parapsychology

            790      Gestalt psychology

            800      Phenomenological psychology

            812      References to quotations in chapter 17

 

Chapter 18        The Unconscious: Reason and Unreason

            817      The tensions of enlightenment

            825      Sigmund Freud and early psychoanalysis

            840      The id, the ego and the psychoanalysts

            856      C. G. Jung and the collective unconscious

            868      References to quotations in chapter 18

 

 Chapter 19        The Individual and the Social

            871      The individual and the crowd

            882      Instincts and group psychology

            892      Social psychology as psychology in the United States

            914      Soviet psychology

            931      References to quotations in chapter 19

 

 Chapter 20        The Past and the Present

            935      The behavioural sciences

            941      Between biology and culture

            955      Neuroscience, brain and mind

            973      Cognitive psychology

            985      The self

            1007    The human sciences: history and science

            1018    References to quotations in chapter 20

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Roger Smith,
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